India produced as many as 86 minerals which included 4 fuel minerals, 10 metallic minerals, 46 non-metallic, 3 atomic minerals and 23 minor minerals. Indian mining industry is characterized by a large numbers of small operational mines. The total major minerals working mines excluding atomic minerals, minor minerals, petroleum (crude) and natural gas in the country was 2874 in 2006-2007. Among them, 556 mines belonged to coal and lignite, 630 mines to metallic minerals. Out of these 755 mines are in public sector and the remaining 2119 mines are in private sector.
The value distribution of mineral production showed that fuels accounted for about 70%, metallic minerals about 3% and minor minerals the reaming 11% minerals prescribed under atomic energy act, 1962 are excluded. In the value of metallic mineral production iron are accounted for about 77.6%, chromite 7.7%, lead and zinc together 4.6% manganese ore 3.7%, copper and bauxite 2.2%, gold (primary and secondary of indigenous origin) 1.5% and silver, tin concentrate etc, accounted for the remaining meagre production values. Amongst the non-metallic minerals, about 95% value was shared by limestone.
Phosphorite/rock phosphate, kaolin, dolomite, barites, magnetite, mineral gypsum, talc/soapstone/steatite, garnet and silica sand. The remaining 5% value was contributed by other nonmetallic minerals. The production in respect of emerald, corundum, garnet, selenite and pyrites was not reported. The public sector continued to play a dominant role in mineral production accounting for 69% in the total value. Small mines, which were mostly in the private sector, continued to be operated manually either as proprietary or partnership ventures.
The minerals which were wholly mined/recovered by the public/joint sector in 2006-07 were lignite, cooper ore, diamond, fluorite, phosphorite/rock phosphate, rock salt, sand and sulphur. By and large, almost the entire production of gold, dunite and gypsum was from public sector. In 2006-07, the public sector accounted for sizeable 94% production of coal, 86% of petroleum 78% of natural gas, 88% of kyanite and 76% of natural gas, 88% of kyanite and 76% of silimate.
The contribution of mining and quarrying sector to the GDP indicating an increase of 3.59% over that in the preceding year. This was mainly due to rise in the value of coal & lignite, bauxite, chromite, copper concentrate, manganese ore, iron ore, lead concentrate and zinc concentrate among metallic minerals and barytes, garnet, dolomite and limestone in non-metallic minerals.
The contribution of fuel minerals to the GDP accrued from mining & quarrying sector in 2006-07 was 67%, metallic minerals 17%, non-metallic minerals 3% and minor minerals 13 percent. About 2% was shared by other metallic minerals accounted for one percent. There is not a single industry which can survive without minerals or their products. Minerals thus, form a part and parcel of our daily life.
Indian MineralsMetallic Minerals Cadmium Ore Copper Ore Lead Ore Zinc Ore Iron Ore Manganese Ore Tungsten Ore Limestone and Dolomite Limestone Dolomite Fertilizer Minerals Gypsum Pyrite Rock Phosphate Saltpeter Fuel Minerals Lignite Glass and Ceramic Minerals Ball Clay China Clay Feldspar Fire Clay Kyanite Quartz Quartzite Silica Sand Precious and Semiprecious Minerals Aquamarine Emerald Industrial Minerals Asbestos Barytes Bentonite Calcite Fluorite Fuller's Earth Garnet Graphite Magnesite Mica Mill Stone Ochre Pyrophylite Siliceous Earth Silimanite Soapstone Vermiculite Wollastonite Dimensional and Building Stone Granite Limestone - Flaggy Marble Rhyolite Sandstone Serpentinite Shale/Schist/Phyllite Slate