Natural Indian Minerals
Limestone Minerals

Name and Composition - Limestone is a calcareous rock, essentially composed of CaCO3. It generally contains varying amount of silica, magnesia and iron. Presence of magnesia above 5 % makes it dolomite and when it reaches 19-21%, it becomes dolomite. Cement grade limestone contains 42-45% CaO. Limestone containing 52% or more CaO and upto 2% SiO2 is put under SMS category.

Physical Properties - It is a fine coarse grained, non crystalline to crystalline, medium hard, generally grey to greyish white, greenish white and varied coloured rock which generally occurs in bedded form.

Mode of Occurrence - Limestone occurs in Precambrian to recent formations as sedimentary deposits. The deposits of Precambrian are recrystallised whereas those of Vindhyans are partly crystalline and younger limestones are non crystalline.

Uses - Limestones has a number of uses. The major use of limestone is in cement industry. Other important uses are as flux in steel plants; in glass, ceramics, paper, textile and tanning industries; for manufacture of calcium carbide, alkali and bleaching powder; for water purification and for pH maintenance in sugar industry; as fertilizer and soil conditioning agent in agriculture; hydrated lime plants, crushing units etc. It is used as a filler in rubber, oil, cloth, paint, cosmetics, tooth paste, shoe polish etc. Limestone powder is used in underground mine dusting to prevent propagation of explosion. One of the latest use of limestone is the extraction of metallic calcium.

Mineral based Industries – Cement plants, hydrated lime, carbide, bleaching powder, chemical plants etc.

Industrial Prospects – Cement plants, hydrated lime, carbide, bleaching powder, chemical plants etc.


Physical Properties
Hardness
Compressive Strength
Water absorption
Density
3 to 4
1800 to 2100 Kg/cm2
Less than 1%
2.5 to 2.65 g/cm3
Chemical Properties
CaO
MgO
Al2O3
95.5
3.10
1.90
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